Professor emeritus at University of Amsterdam. Three themes have been central to his research program: (1) the dynamics of science, technology, and innovation; (2) the scientometric operationalization of these concepts; and (3) the elaboration in terms of a Triple Helix of university-industry-government relations. Using Luhmann’s social-systems theory for modeling meaning processing and Shannon’s theory for information processing, Professor Leydesdorff shows in this new book (Open Access) that synergy can add new options to an innovation system as redundancy. The capacity to develop new options is more important for innovation than past performance. Entertaining a model of possible future states makes a knowledge-based system increasingly anticipatory. The trade-off between the incursion of future states on the historical developments can be measured using the Triple-Helix synergy indicator. This is shown, for example, for the Italian national and regional systems of innovation.